Heat Transfer Design Considerations for Refractory Linings with Steel Anchors, Part 2

Greg Palmer1, Tony Howes2

1 Palmer Technologies Pty. Ltd., 4151 Coorparoo DC, Queensland
2 School of Engineering, The University of Queensland, 4072 St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia


Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 97 - 101


Part 1 of this paper dealt with the thermal conductivity of refractory materials and the problem of 1D heat transfer. It is concluded that the current design procedure for refractory structures using 1D heat transfer models can result in serious temperature prediction errors and the use of simplified forced convection coefficient equations can lead to errors of 25 % or more. The analysis and historical data shows that manufacturer’s published thermal conductivity values can be very inaccurate for unknown reasons. The error in the manufacturer’s thermal conductivity can be by as much as 50 %. Research [1, 2] has shown that correlations based on the hot-wire test can accurately predict refractory thermal conductivity. It has been found that using hot-wire thermal conductivity data with an interface air gap is an accurate method for predicting temperature profiles in refractory systems. Heat transfer analysis is a critical step in the design stage of refractory lining structures yet numerous simplifying assumptionsare regularly made. This paper discusses 2D and 3D heat transfer analysis and recommends that there is a need for more accurate information to be published by manufacturers.


Heat transfer analysis, refractory linings, steel anchors, 2D and 3D thermal analysis



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