A Comprehensive Study of Modern Gasification Slags and Refractories Used in Gasifiers to Guide the Development of Novel/Improved Lining Materials

Jinichiro Nakano

US Department of Energy National Energy, Technology Laboratory, 97321 Albany/OR/USA and URS Corp, 97321 Albany/OR/USA

Revision 16.10.2011, 30.10.2011

Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 107 - 112


To understand how gasification slags formed from mixtures of coal and petcoke feedstock impact the erosion and corrosion behaviors of refractory materials in gasifiers, research was divided into three areas. First, interactions of synthetic coal and petcoke slag with high- Cr2O3 refractory were investigated using a controlled atmosphere heating chamber attached to a confocal scanning laser microscope. Dynamic slag/refractory interactions were studied through in situ observations under gasification conditions. Second, thermodynamic equilibria of crystals formed in slag mixtures were examined using a series of long-term equilibration experiments. V2O3 crystals were found to be in equilibrium with molten slag if there was a sufficient amount of vanadium content in the bulk slag. Finally, the formation kinetics of crystals, including V2O3, in coal-petcoke slag mixtures was studied. It was found the V2O3 crystal could form as quickly as 35 s if more than 80 mass-% petcoke was added to coal feedstock.


gasification, refractory, slag, IGCC, V2O3, mullite


[1] Yin, H.; Emi, T.; Shibata, H.: Morphological instability of delta-ferrite/gamma-austenite interphase boundary in low carbon steels. Acta Materialia 47 (1999) [5] 1523–1535


[2] Nakano, J.; et al.: Interactions of refractory materials with molten gasifier slags. Int. J. of Hydrogen Energy 36 (2011) [7] 4595–4604


[3] Nakano, J.; et al.: Phase equilibria in synthetic coal-petcoke slags (SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-FeO-V2O3) under simulated gasification conditions. Energy & Fuels 25 (2011) [7] 3298–3306


[4] Nakano, J.; et al.: Crystallization of synthetic coal-petcoke slag mixtures simulating those encountered in entrained bed slagging gasifiers. Energy & Fuels 23 (2009) [10] 4723–4733


[5] Selvig, W.A.; Gibson, F.H.: Analyses of ash from United States coals. Bureau of Mines Bull. Vol. 567 (1956)


[6] Bryers, R.W.: Utilization of petroleum coke and petroleum coke/coal blends as a means of steam raising. Fuel Processing Technol. 44 (1995) [1–3] 121–141


[7] Swanson, M.L.; Hajicek, D.R.: International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustions, 2001  


Göller Verlag GmbH