Slag Corrosion of Preceramic Paper Derived Multilayer Oxide Refractory

Björn Gutbrod1, Nahum Travitzky1, Peter Greil1, Andreas Richter2, Matthias Göbbels2

1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Glass and Ceramics) and ZMP, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen/Germany
2 Applied Mineralogy GeoZentrum Nordbayern, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91054 Erlangen/Germany

Revision 06.08.2012, 14.08.2012

Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 103 - 109


Multilayer oxide ceramics of variable compositions were fabricated from preceramic paper to substitute carbon-bonded refractory. Alternating layers of ZrO2,Al2O3–ZrO2 and Al2O3–MgAl2O4 preceramic paper were bonded with a zirconia based interface adhesive layer and co-sintered at 1700 °C. The porous multilayer refractory structures were exposed to an industrial CaO–Fe2O3–SiO2-slag melt at 1390 °C and the corrosion degradation mechanisms were analyzed. Progression of the corrosion zone is dominated by a layer-by-layer infiltration and dissolution reaction process. Zirconia laminates were found to exhibit superior corrosion resistance. Enhanced dissolution of interface layers was observed in the alumina-zirconia system. A pronounced volume expansion effect caused accelerated degradation in the alumina-spinel based system. ZrO2 based interface bonding layers of lower porosity compared to the preceramic paper derived ceramic layers may improve corrosion resistance. Manufacturing of multilayer refractory structures from preceramic paper of various compositions offers high flexibility in stacking design optimization in order to adopt corrosion resistance to local environmental conditions.


preceramic paper, multi-layered, refractories, slag corrosion


[1] Banerjee, S.: Properties of refractories. In: Schacht, C.A. (editor): Refractories handbook. New York 2004, 1–10

[2] Lee, W.E.; Zhang, S.: Melt corrosion of oxide and oxide-carbon refractories. Int. Mater. Rev. 44 (1999) 77–104

[3] Brosnan, D.A.: Corrosion of refractories. In: Schacht, C.A. (editor): Refractories Handbook, New York 2004, 39–77

[4] Poirer, J.; et al.: An overview of refractory corrosion: observations, mechanisms and thermodynamic modeling. Refractories Applications Trans. 3 (2007) 2–12

[5] Lewis, G.: Refractories. In: Schneider Jr., S.J. (volume chairman): Eng. Mater. Handbook, Vol. 4: Ceramics and Glasses. 2nd printing, Metals Park (OH) 2000, 895–909

[6] Aneziris, C.G.; Homola, F.; Borzov, D.: Material and process development of advanced refractories for innovative metal processing. Adv. Eng. Mater. 6 (2004) 562–568

[7] Leistner, H.; Ratcliffe, D.; Schuler, A.: Improved material design devices for continuous casting components. In: Proc. of the 2nd Worldwide Conf. on Refractories, Aachen 1991, 316–319

[8] Tsujino, R.; et al.: Mechanism of deposition of inclusion and metal in ZrO2-CaO-C immersion nozzle of continuous casting. ISIJ Int. 34 (1994) 853–858

[9] Sasai, K.; Mizukami, Y.: Reaction mechanism between alumina graphite immersion nozzle and low carbon steel. ISIJ Int. 34 (1994) 802– 809

[10] Sasai, K.; Mizukami, Y.: Reaction rate between alumina graphite immersion nozzle and low carbon steel. ISIJ Int. 35 (1995) 26–33

[11] Ewais, E.M.M.: Carbon based refractories. J. Ceram. Soc. Japan 112 (2004) 517–532

[12] Travitzky, N.; et al.: Preceramic paper-derived ceramics. J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 91 (2008) 3477–3492

[13] Windsheimer, H.; et al.: Laminated object manufacturing of preceramic-paper-derived Si- SiC composites. Adv. Mater. 19 (2007) 4515– 4519

[14] Gomes, C.M.; et al.: Preceramic paper derived fibrillar ceramics. Ceram. Trans. 210 (2010) 421–426

[15] Gutbrod, B.; et al.: Preceramic paper derived alumina/zirconia ceramics. Adv. Eng. Mater. 13 (2011) 494–501

[16] Hein, J.; Kuna, M.: Optimizing thermal shock resistance of layered refractories. Adv. Eng. Mater. 14 (2012) 408–415

[17] Fox, A.B.; et al.: Dissolution of ZrO2, Al2O3, MgO and MgAl2O4 particles in a B2O3 containing commercial fluoride-free mould slag. ISIJ Int. 44 (2004) 836–845

[18] Chung, Y.-D.; Schlesinger, M.E.: Interaction of CaO-FeO-SiO2 slags with partially stabilized zirconia. J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 77 (1994) 611–616

[19] Korgul, P.; Wilson, D.R.; Lee, W.E.: Microstructural analysis of corroded alumina-spinel castable refractories. J. Europ. Ceram. Soc. 17 (1997) 77–84

[20] Scheidegger, A.E.: The physics of flow through porous media. Toronto 1974

[21] Carman, P.C.: Flow of gases through porous media. London 1956

[22] Barry, D.A.; Parker, J.C.: Approximations for solute transport through porous media with flow transverse to layering. Transport Porous Med. 2 (1987) 65–82

[23] Chen, Z.R.; Ye, L.; Liu, H.Y.: Effective permeabilities of multilayer fabric preforms in liquid composite moulding. Comp. Struct. 66 (2004) 351–357

[24] Lasaga, A.: Kinetic theory in the earth sciences. Princeton (NJ) 1998



Göller Verlag GmbH