The Accelerated Drying of Refractory Concrete – Part I: A Review of Current Understanding
1 Palmer Tech Group, New Farm QLD 4005/Australia
2 School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia 4072/Australia
Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 75 - 83
The drying of refractory and Portland cement concretes has been studied by engineers and scientists for many years and lately research is driven by the need to understand the damage mechanisms to public infrastructure from fires. The development of high performance concrete (HPC), self-compacted concretes (SCC), low cement refractory concrete (LCC), ultra-low cement refractory concrete (ULCC) and no cement refractory concrete (NCC) by selecting the particle size distribution to improve packing and replacing cement with ultrafine particles such as silica fume and hydrateable alumina has enabled compressive strengths to increase to >100 MPa. This means there is an even greater demand on engineers to understand the forced drying of these materials.
drying, spalling, refractory, Concrete
 Bazant, Z.P.; Thouguthai W.: Pore Pressure and Drying of Concrete. J. of Eng. Mechanics Division V104, WM5 No. 107, 1978  Jansson, R.: Fire Spalling of Concrete. PhD Thesis Stockholm Report TVBM-3143. Lund Institute of Technology, 2013  Zhao, J.: Fire-Induced Spalling Modelling of High-Performance Concrete. PhD Thesis. University Delft, 2012  Moore, R.E.; Smith, J.D.; Sander, T.P.; Severin N.: Dewatering of Monolithic Refractory Castables: Experimental and Practical Experience, UNITECR 97  Velez, M.; Headrick, W.L.; Karakus, M.; Moore R.E.: Dewatering Castables. 39th Symposium on Refractories. St. Louis, April 2003  Hipps, D.L.; Brown Jr., J.J.: Internal Pressure Measurements for Control of Explosive Spalling in Refractory Castables. Am. Ceram. Bull. 63 (1984)   Noumowe, A.N.; Siddique, R.; Debicki, G.: Permeability of high-performance concrete subjected to elevated temperature (600 °C). Construction and Build. Mat. 23 (2009)  Myhre, B.: Microsilica-gel bond castables for rapid heat-up. St. Louis section/RCD. 48th Annual Symposium, 2012  Cui, Lu; Cahyadi, J.H.: Permeability and Pore Structure of OPC Paste. Cement and Concrete [Research 31, 2001  Innocentini, M.D.M.; Yamamoto, R.J.; Paiva, A.E.; Pandolfelli, V.C.; Bittencourt, L.R.M.; Rettore, R.P.: Drying Behaviour of Refractory Castables. Am Cer. Soc. Bull. 80 (2011)   Innocentini, M.D.M.; Miranda, M.F.S.; Cardoso, F.A.; Pandolfelli, V.C.: Vaporization Process and Pressure Build-up during Dewatering of Dense Refractory Castables. J. Am. Cer. Soc. 86 (2003)  [Heated Concrete Walls: Theoretical Prediction. Magazine of Concrete Research 31 June 1997, No. 107  Kakroudi, M.G.; Yeugo-Fogaing, E.; Gault, C.; Huger, M.; Chotard T.: Effect of thermal treatment on damage mechanical behaviour of refractory castables: Comparison between bauxite and andalusite aggregates. J. Eur. Cer. Soc. 28 (2008)  Gong, Zhen-Xiang; Majumbar, A.S.: A Two Dimensional Finite Element Model for Kiln-Drying of Refractory Concrete. Drying Technology 13 (1995)   Ribeiro, C.; Innocentini, M.D.M.; Pandolfelli V.C.: Dynamic Permeability Behavior during Drying of Refractory Castables Based on Calcium- Free Alumina Binders. J. Am. Cer. Soc. 84 (2001)   Andrade Jr., J. S.; Costa, U.M.S.; Almeida, M.P.; Makse, H.A.; Stanley H. E.: Inertial Effects on Fluid Flow through Disordered Porous Media. Physical Review Letters 82 June 1999, No. 26  Canon, J.M.; Sander, T.P.; Smith, J.D.; Moore, R.E.: Effect of organic Fibre on Permeability of Refractory ConcreteProc. of UNITECR ‘97, New Orleans, 1997  Innocentini, M.D.M.; Ribeiro, C.; Salomão, R.: Assessment of Mass Loss and Permeability Changes during the Dewatering Process of Refractory Castables Containing Polypropylene Fibres. J. Am. Cer. Soc. 85 (2002)   Parr, Chr.; Wöhrmeyer, P.: The Advantage of Calcium Aluminate Cement as a Castable Bonding System. Kerneos Technical Paper TP-GBRE- LAF-052. Presented at the St. Louis Technical Session Meeting of the Am. Cer. Soc. 2006  Long, W.G.; Moeller, H.H.: Rapid Fire Refractories, USA Patent 4,419,451, 1983  Claisse, P.A; Elsayad, H.I.; Ganjian, E.: Water vapour and liquid permeability measurements in cementitious samples. Advances in Cement Research 21 (2009)   Chung, J.H.; Consolazio, G.R.: Numerical modeling of transport phenomena in reinforced concrete exposed to elevated temperatures. Cement and Concrete Research 35 (2005)
Göller Verlag GmbH