The Value of Additives in Refractory Castables Part 1: Castables without Silica Fume

Dale Zacherl1, Andreas Buhr2, Dagmar Schmidtmeier2, Shankha Chatterjee3, Zhongkai Tian4, Jerry Dutton5, Rainer Kockegey-­Lorenz6

1 Almatis Inc., Leetsdale/US
2 Almatis GmbH, 67065 Ludwigshafen/Germany
3 Almatis Alumina Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata/IN
4 Qingdao Almatis Co. Ltd., Huangdao/CN
5 Stourbridge/GB
6 Almatis GmbH, 67065 Ludwigshafen/Germany


Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 75 - 82


Since the use of low cement castable technology became extensive in the early 1990‘s, the application of additives for the efficient dispersion of fine and ultra­fine matrix components has become essential. Part 1 of this paper discusses the value of additives in general, and compares the differences in various traditional and modern additive concepts covering flow properties, working time, setting behaviour, and their impact on physical properties incl. hot properties in silica fume­free low cement castables. Part 2 will be published in in the next issue rwf 4/2014 and will discuss additives used in castables containing silica fume as fine matrix filler in the range of 3–5 % additions.


additives, castables, dispersion


[1] Kriechbaum, G.; et al.: The matrix advantage system, a new approach to low moisture LC selflevel ing alumina and alumina spinel castables. 39. Int. Colloquium on refractories, Aachen, Germany (1996), 211–218 [2] Zschimmer & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG: Techn. information sheets: „Mechanisms of action of de flocculants and dispersants in ceramic bodies“ [3] Gierisch, D.; et al.: Aging behaviour of alphabond and calcium aluminate cement bonded castables. 49th Int. Colloquium on Refractories, Aachen, Germany (2006), 137–142 [4] Krebs, R.: Innovationen bei verflüssigten Feuerbetonen. Presentation at the refractory and chimney congress 2003 of GARC (German Association of Refractories and Chimneys) in Düsseldorf/Germany, 16 June 2003 [5] Seyerl v., J.: Chemical additives for castables. UNITECR 2011, Kyoto, Japan


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