Investigation of the Factors Influencing the Bulk Density and Open Porosity Testing Results for Refractory Materials

C. Dannert, E. Dahlem, S. Clasen

Forschungsgemeinschaft Feuerfest e.V., 56203 Höhr-Grenzhausen/Germany


Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 95 - 104


This paper highlights the efforts that were undertaken within the framework of the EU FP7 ReStaR research project for the determination of testing parameters and conditions (“factors”) influencing the bulk density (BD) and open porosity (oPo) testing results of refractory materials. Besides the generation for precision data, it is necessary to understand which instructions in the standard EN ISO 1927‑6 for unshaped refractories and in the standard EN 993-1 for dense shaped refractories and carbon-bonded refractories are sensitive for diverging testing results and are therefore to be considered as significant factors influencing those results.


bulk density, open porosity, testing standard, interlaboratory tests


[1] Lu Y., Mei L.: Optimization of fermentation conditions for P450 BM-3 monooxygenase production by hybrid design methodology. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B. 8 (2007) [1] 27–32 [2] Plackett, P.; Burman, J.P.: The design of optimum multifactorial experiments. Biometrika 37 (1946) [4] 305–325 [3] [4] Dannert, C.: ReStaR – Collaborative R&I in the European refractory sector to review and improve testing standards. refractories WORLDFORUM 5 (2013) [4] 41–42 [5] Zimmermann, J.; Krause, O.: Phase evolution of calcium aluminate cement in refractory castables at temperatures exceeding 1000 °C. Int. Feuerfest- Kolloqium Aachen. 2008, 20–23 [6] ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008: Uncertainty of measurement – Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement [7] Uhlig, S.: GUMsim Manual Version 1.3. Quodata 2012 [8] Quinn, G.P.; Keough, M.J.: Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge 2002


Göller Verlag GmbH