Investigation of the Elastic Properties of Dense Ceramics of the Binary System Al2O3-ZrO2 after Thermal Shocks

Nicolas Traon1, Thorsten Tonnesen1, Rainer Telle1, Gabriela Diniz Franca2, Pierluigi Piccolo3

1 GHI/RWTH-Aachen, Institute of Mineral Engineering, Department of Ceramics and Refractory Materials, 52064 Aachen/Germany
2 Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (MG) 31270-901/Brazil
3 Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (RJ) 21941-901/Brazil

Revision 28.05.2015, 08.06.2015

Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 119 - 126


The work herein correlates elastic properties and microstructural characterization of dense ceramic materials elaborated by slip casting before and after thermal shocks in water. A total of eleven formulations of the binary system Al2O3–ZrO2 are studied. Therefore a partially stabilised zirconia doped with 3 mol.-% of yttria with a limited quantity of monoclinic phase is used to avoid undesirable microstructure damaging during the sintering of the ceramic samples at 1550 °C/3h. The quenching cycles in water are progressively performed according to DIN 51068 at 400 °C to examine the lonely influence of the crack initiation on the microstructural and elastic properties of the samples. Young’s modulus, damping properties of the flexural resonant frequency and the non-linearity of the flexural resonant frequency are determined through Resonant Frequency Damping Analysis via the Impulse Excitation Technique at room temperature after each thermal shock cycle according to ASTM C 1548-02. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) completes this survey in order to understand the elastic property changes of these ceramic pieces after damaging in regard to their microstructural changes. This study aims to gather fundamental knowledge with regard to internal friction phenomena in the binary system Al2O3–ZrO2. Indeed such a data acquisition leads to a better understanding of the evolution of the elastic properties of typical high alumina refractory formulations with addition of partially stabilised zirconia.


thermal shock, impulse excitation technique, partially stabilised zirconia, Young’s modulus, damping, non-linearity


[1] Miyaji, D.Y.; Tonnesen, T.; Rodrigues, J.A.: Fracture energy and thermal shock damage resistance of refractory castables containing eutectic aggregates. Ceramics Int. 40 (2014) [9] Part B, 15227–15239 [2] Boccaccini, D.N.; et al.: Determination of thermal shock resistance in refractory materials by ultrasonic pulse velocity measurement. J. Europ. Ceram. Soc. 27 (2007) [2–3] 1859– 1863 [3] Aly, F.; Semler, C.E.: Prediction of refractory strength using non-destructive sonic measurements. Amer. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 64 (1985) [12] 1555–1558 [4] Mignard, F.; Olagnon, C.; Fantozzi, G.: Acoustic emission monitoring of damage evaluation in ceramics submitted to thermal shock. J. Europ. Ceram. Soc. 15 (1995) [7] 651–653 [5] Luz, A.P.; et al.: Thermal shock damage evaluation of refractory castables via hot modulus measurements. Ceramics Int. 39 (2013) [6] 6189–6197 [6] Tonnesen, T.; Telle, R.: Thermal shock damage in castables: Microstructural changes and evaluation by a damping method. cfi/Ber. DKG 84 (2007) [9] E132–E136 [7] Chen, R.Z.; Tuan, W.H.: Toughening alumina with silver and zirconia inclusions. J. Europ. Ceram. Soc. 21 (2001) [16] 2887–2893 [8] Mamivand, M.; Zaeem, M.A.; El Kadiri, H.: Phase field modeling of stress-induced tetragonal- to-monoclinic transformation in zirconia and its effect on transformation toughening. Acta Materialia 64 (2014) 208–219 [9] Fruhstorfer, J.; et al.: Microstructure and strength of fused high alumina materials with 2.5 wt-% zirconia and 2.5 wt-% titania additions for refractory applications. Ceramics Int., available in press (2015) [10] Roebben, G.; et al.: Transformation-induced damping behaviour of Y-TZP zirconia ceramics. J. Europ. Ceram. Society 23 (2003) [3] 481–489 [11] Pasaribu, H.R.: Friction and wear of zirconia and alumina ceramics doped with CuO. University of Twente, Enschede 2005 [12] Hasselman, D.P.H.: Unified theory of thermal shock fracture initiation and crack propagaenergytion in brittle ceramics. J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 52 (1969) 600–604 [13] Duck, F.A.: Nonlinear acoustics in diagnostic ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology 28 (2002) [1] 1–18 [14] Abeele, K.V.D.; Visscherb, J.: Damage assessment in reinforced concrete using spectral and temporal nonlinear vibration technique. Cement and Concrete Research 30 (2000) 1453–1464 [15] DIN 51068: Determination of resistance to thermal shock – Water quenching method for refractory bricks, 2008 [16] ASTM C 1548-02: Standard test method for dynamic Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio of refractory materials by impulse excitation of vibration. ASTM International (2007) [17] Traon, N.; Tonnesen, Th.; Telle, R.: Comparison of the elastic properties determined by different devices in a refractory castable based on partially stabilised zirconia. Proc. 53rd Int. Coll. on Refractories, Aachen 2010, 98–101 [18] DIN EN 993-1: Method of test for sense shaped refractory products – Part 1: Determination of bulk density, apparent porosity and true porosity, 1995


Göller Verlag GmbH