New Perspectives for Investigating the Softening Behaviour of Refractory Products at High Temperature

Erwan Brochen1, Christian Dannert1, Pascal Pilate2

1 Forschungsgemeinschaft Feuerfest e.V., 56203 Höhr-Grenzhausen/Germany
2 Centre de Recherches de l’Industrie Belge de la Céramique, 7000 Mons/Belgium

Revision 10.07.2015, 27.07.2015

Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 104 - 110


Almost regardless of their application, refractory products have to sustain high temperatures and substantial loads. Refractory products are subjected to mechanical loading at high temperature, for instance the weight of the refractory structure itself or ferrostatic pressure for steel or pig iron containing vessels. Even if not leading to the immediate collapse of the refractory structure, significant deformation can occur in refractory products under the combined effect of high temperatures and mechanical loadings, impeding the proper functioning of industrial equipment relying on refractories. Thanks to an innovative testing equipment, the standard testing conditions (EN ISO 1893: Determination of refractoriness under load and EN 993-9: Determination of creep in compression), i.e. with different atmospheres and higher loading, and the knowledge about creep behaviour of refractory products was broadend. The primary creep stage of refractory products and the resulting microstructure are clearly impacted by the testing conditions, such as temperature, load or atmosphere, and in turn influence the creep behaviour in the quasi steady state. An optical dilatometer provides novel information about the two-dimensional behaviour of refractory products subject to increasing temperature and loading. Such data can be decisive to support the development of 3-dimensional models to better understand, or even optimise, the behaviour of complex refractory structures.


high temperature testing, creep, optical dilatometry, SiC castable, AZS


[1] Routschka, G.; Wuthnow, H.: Handbook of refractory Materials. 5th Ed., Essen 2012 [2] Jokanovic, V.; Djurkovic, G.; Curcic, R.: Creep and microstructure in refractory materials. Amer. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 77 (1998) 61–65 [3] Ainsworth, J.H.; Kaniuk, J.: Creep of refractories in high temperature blast furnace stoves. Amer. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 57 (1978) [7] 657–659 [4] Raether, F.; Meinhardt, J.; Schulze Horn, P.: A versatile thermooptical measuring system for the optimization of heat treatment. cfi/Ber. DKG 84 (2007) [4] E18–21


Göller Verlag GmbH