A Critical Analysis of Anchor Spacing in Refractory Lining Design

V. C. Pandolfelli1, M. A. L. Braulio2, B. H. Teider2, C. A. Goulart3

1 Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Materials Engineering Department, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905/Brazil
2 Alcoa Alumínio S.A., Research, Development and Innovation (R&D&I) Department, Poços de Caldas, MG, 37719-900/Brazil
3 Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Materials Engineering Department, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905/Brazil

Revision 27.10.2015, 09.12.2015

Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 92 - 102

Abstract

Many of the shortcomings attributed to the refractory lining materials may in fact be related to design issues, such as the anchoring one. Key aspects in the engineering of these systems, as the spacing and position of the anchors, are defined using empirical knowledge in the everyday practice of companies. This approach does not take into account factors such as thermal behaviour and strength of the anchors, and their interactions with the lining, highlighting the need for a more detailed and technical analysis of the subject. This study proposes a modification in the calculation model of anchor spacing suggested in the literature and compares the attained results with standard values presented by few companies and those used in an actual project of an alumina calciner, aiming to obtain a better modeling reference and greater reliability in the design of future projects.

Keywords

refractory lining, design, anchoring system

References

[1] Teider, B.: The refractory lining and its effect on the life time and energy consumption of alumina calciners [in Portuguese]. MSc Dissertation, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos 2012 [2] Plibrico Japan Co. Ltd.: Technology of monolithic refractories. Tokyo 1999, 314–339 [3] Chen, E.; Dicks, L.; Buyukozturk, O.: Anchorlining interaction in a hot-shell refractory lining. Amer. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 69 (1990) [11] 1813– 1820 [4] Palmer, G.; Tan, K.: Design and failure of monolithic refractory structures – part I. Refractories Applications and News 14 (2009) [3] 19–26 [5] Shinagawa Refractories: Anchoring of monolithic refractories. Shinagawa’s standard installation procedures IP-008 anchors (2004). http:// www.shinagawa.biz/index.pl?page=57 [6] Palmer, G.; Smillie, M.: Selecting steel anchors for monolithic refractory linings Refractories Applications and News 12 (2007) [5] 22–30 [7] Pessoa, D.S.: Inspection and maintenance of refractories [in Portuguese]. Course Booklet, Instituto Santista de Qualidade Industrial, São José dos Campos 2013 [8] Thermal Ceramics: Anchoring of monolithic refractories, Design & Installation Manual, 2002 http://www.morganthermalceramics.com/resources/ installation-manuals [9] Forni, G.; Recalcati, P.; Nestani, M.: The influence of thermal bridges in refractory linings La Metallurgia Italiana 6 (2007) 53–60 [10] Liu, D.; Winn, E.J.: Microstresses in particulatereinforced brittle composites J. of Mater. Sci. 36 (2001) 3487–3495

Copyright

Göller Verlag GmbH