A Critical Analysis of Anchor Spacing in Refractory Lining Design

C. A. Goulart1, V. C. Pandolfelli1, M. A. L. Braulio2, B. H. Teider2

1 Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Materials Engineering Department, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905/Brazil
2 Alcoa Alumínio S.A., Research, Development and Innovation (R&D&I) Department, Poços de Caldas, MG, 37719-900/Brazil

Revision 27.10.2015, 09.12.2015

Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 92 - 102


Many of the shortcomings attributed to the refractory lining materials may in fact be related to design issues, such as the anchoring one. Key aspects in the engineering of these systems, as the spacing and position of the anchors, are defined using empirical knowledge in the everyday practice of companies. This approach does not take into account factors such as thermal behaviour and strength of the anchors, and their interactions with the lining, highlighting the need for a more detailed and technical analysis of the subject. This study proposes a modification in the calculation model of anchor spacing suggested in the literature and compares the attained results with standard values presented by few companies and those used in an actual project of an alumina calciner, aiming to obtain a better modeling reference and greater reliability in the design of future projects.


refractory lining, design, anchoring system


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