Utilization of Waste Products in Refractory Materials

Lucie Vodová, Karel Lang, Pavel Kovár, Lukáš Tvrdík

P-D Refractories CZ a.s., 679 63 Velké Opatovice/Czech Republic


Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 59 - 66


Over 13 Mt of energy by-products is generated in the Czech Republic every year. Part of them is further applied in the manufacturing of building materials. The article describes experiences with application of the energy by-products for manufacturing of refractory materials in the company P-D Refractories CZ a.s. Alternative materials were used in lightweight insulation fireclay bricks. We can use class F fly ash as a grog and lightening agent for materials with bulk density over 900 kg · m–3 and classification temperature up to 1150 °C. Class C fly ash is being tested in a wide range of the refractory materials. For example, it can be used in fireclay bricks for stoves, acid-resistant fireclay bricks or refractory castables. Utilization of waste products means reducing of a raw material costs and it is also limited their adverse impact on the environment.


energy by-products, class F fly ash, class C fly ash, refractory materials


[1] Zimmer, A.; Bergmann, C.P.: Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material. Waste management 27 (2007) 59–68 [2] Sokolárˇ, R.; Smetanová, L.: Dry pressed ceramic tiles based on fly ash-clay body: Influence of fly ash granulometry and pentasodium triphosphate addition. [online] Ceramics Int. 36 (2009) 215–221 [3] Sumer, M.: Compressive strength and sulfate resistance properties of concretes containing class F and class C fly ashes. Construction and Building Mater. 34 (2012) 531–535 [4] Temuujin, J.; Rickard, W.; van Riessen, A.: Characterization of various fly ashes for preparation of geopolymers with advanced applications. Adv. Powder Technol. 24 (2013) 495–498 [5] Erol, M.; Ku˝çu˝ bayrak, S.; Ersoy-Meriçboyu, A.: Characterization of coal fly ash for possible utilization in glass production. Fuel 86 (2006) 706–714 [6] Vodová, L.; et al.: Experiences of using alternative raw materials in manufacturing of refractory materials. China’s Refractories 25 (2016) [1] [7] Sokolárˇ, R.; Vodová, L.: The effect of fluidized fly ash on the properties of dry pressed ceramic tiles based on fly ash-clay body. Ceramics Int. 37 (2011) 2879–2885 [8] Sokolárˇ, R.; et al.: Mechanical properties of ceramic bodies based on calcite waste. Ceramics Int. 38 (2012), 6607–6612


Göller Verlag GmbH