Linking Customer Needs of Refractory Suppliers with Technological Requirements on the Refractories
1 Institute of Ceramic, Glass and Construction Materials, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 09596 Freiberg/Germany
2 Deutsche Edelstahlwerke GmbH, 57078 Siegen/Germany
Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 71 - 75
Although the suppliers and developers of refractories often know what is expected of their product, in many cases the details of what requirement is how important are unknown and diffcult to estimate. A tool to link customer needs with technological requirements is a method called House of Quality (HOQ). In this study a planning matrixHOQ for refractories applied in steel ingot casting is developed. Of the technological requirements thermal shock, erosion, impact and corrosion resistance, the thermal shock resistance has the highest impact on the application behaviour. Nevertheless, by optimising the corrosion resistance good results can be obtained faster. Thus, the method proved to be able to identify not only importances of the requirements but also an order in which to address their development.
house of quality, quality function deployment, steel ingot casting, refractories
 Temponi, C.;Yen, J.;Tiao W.: House of quality:A fuzzy logicbased requirements analysis. Europ. J. Oper. Res. 177 (1999) 340–354  Park, T.; Kim, K.J.: Determination of an optimal set of design requirements using house of quality. J. Oper. Manag. 16 (1998) 569– 581  De Feo, J.: Quality planning: Design innovative products and services. In: Juran, J., De Feo, J., eds.: Juran’s quality hand book; chap. 4. New York, NY,6th ed., 2010, 83–136  Linß, G.: Quality management for engineers (in German); chap. 11.1. 3rd revised and extended ed., München 2011, 194–213  Akao, Y.; Mazur, G.: The leading edge in qfd: past, present and future. Int. J. Qual. Reliab. Manag. 20 (2003)  20–35  Ritter, W.; Ruwier, K.; Schönwelski, W.: Carbonaceous freproof material for use when casting steel in a bottom casting process and formed parts produced thereof. Patent WO 2011/054872 A1, 2011  Fruhstorfer, J.; et al.: Upright die pressing of refractory hollowware for steel ingot casting with reduced clay content. Ceramics Int. 42 (2016) Part B  3219–3228  Zhang, L.; Thomas, B.: Stateoftheart in the control of inclusions during steel ingot casting. Metallurgical and Mater. Transactions B 37 (2006) 733–761  Fruhstorfer, J.; et al.: Thermal shock performance of refractories for application in steel ingot casting. J. Ceram. Sci. Technol. 7 (2016)  173–182  Fruhstorfer, J.; et al.: Interface analyses between a casehardened ingot casting steel and carbon containing and carbon free refractories. Metall Mater. Trans. B 49 (2018)  499–521  Fruhstorfer, J.; et al.: Erosion and corrosion of alumina refractory by ingot casting steels. J. Europ. Ceram. Soc. 36 (2016) 1299–306  Lee,W.; Zhang, S.: Melt corrosion of oxide and oxidecarbon refractories. Int. Mater. Rev. 44 (1999)  77–104  Carniglia, S.; Barna, G.: Handbook of Industrial Refractories Technology. Park Ridge, NJ, 1992  TARJ: Editor. Refractories handbook. The Technical Association of Refractories, Japan 1998  Ratle, A.; et al.: Correlation between thermal shock and mechanical impact resistance of refractories. Brit. Ceram. Trans. 96 (1997)  225–230  Schulle, W.: Refractory materials (in German). Leipzig 1990  Poirier, J.; et al.: Analysis and interpretation of refractory microstructure in studies of corrosion mechanisms by liquid oxides. J. Europ. Ceram. Soc. 28 (2008)  1557–1568  Aneziris, Chr.; et al.: Functional refractory material design for advanced thermal shock performance due to titania additions. Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 4 (2007)  481–489  Skiera E.; et al.: Controlled crack propagation experiments with a novel aluminabased refractory. Adv. Engin. Mater. 14 (2011)  248–254  Roungos, V.; Aneziris, C.; Berek, H.: Novel Al2O3-−C refractories with less residual carbon due to nanoscaled additives for continuous steel casting applications. Adv. Engin. Mater. 14 (2012)  255–264  Bradt, R.: Elastic moduli, strength and fracture characteristics of refractories. Key Engin. Mater. 88 (1993) 165–192  Schacht, C.: Refractories handbook. New York, NY, 2004  Fruhstorfer, J.; et al.: Corrosion of carbon free and bonded refractories for application in steel ingot casting. Steel Research Int. 87 (2016) DOI: 10.1002/srin.201600023  Duvauchelle, N.; Soudier, J.: High performance Al2O3-SiC-C monolithic refractories releasing no hydrogen for BF casthouse applications. Proc. of the 13th Unifed Int. Tech. Conf. on Refractories (UNITECR), 2013, 398–403  Hasselman, D.P.H.: Unifed theory of thermal shock fracture initiation and crack propagation in brittle ceramics. J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 52 (1969)  600–604  Hasselman, D.P.H.: Elastic energy at fracture and surface energy as design criteria for thermal shock. J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 46 (1963)  535–540
Göller Verlag GmbH