Investigation of the Tendency for Failure of Refractory Castables in theWear Lining of a Steel Ladle Using Elongated or Cubic Shaped Tabular Alumina

Erwan Brochen1, Maren Sollbach1, Christian Dannert1, Olaf Krause2, Laura Erbar2, Sandra Abdelouhab3, Pascal Pilate3

1 Forschungsgemeinschaft Feuerfeste.V., Höhr-Grenzhausen/Germany
2 Hochschule Koblenz, Höhr-Grenzhausen/Germany
3 INISMa Institut Interuniversitaire des Silicates, Mons/Belgium


Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 51 - 58


Over the past decades, numerical simulation has proved to be a decisive tool for engineers. In the feld of refractory technologies, numerical modelling helps increasing the understanding of the behaviour of refractory linings under service conditions, checking the validity of new designs and potentially predicting the failure of refractory structures. However, due to the arising of complex states of stresses during operation, the prediction of the failure of complex refractory structures, such as linings, is no easy task. On the one hand, refractory materials, like most ceramic materials, tend to be weak in tension but strong in compression. On the other hand, very complex stress distributions are generated in refractory structures under operation. Consequently, no simple and single strength thresholds, such as the tensile or compression strength, can be used in a straightforward and obvious manner. Failure thresholds considering complex multiaxial state of stress need to be implemented. As one of the pertinent failure criteria for refractory structures, the Drucker-Prager criterion was derived from uniaxial compression and diametral compression tests and applied to an exemplary model. Focus was laid on the investigation of the tendency for failure of a high alumina monolithic wear lining in a steel ladle during its frst heating up. Especially, the impact of using either splintered or cubic tabular alumina in the coarse fraction of the monolithic was studied. First critical stresses seemed to appear already in the middle of the pre-heating of the steel ladle, i.e. above 500 °C. Using splintered tabular alumina enhanced the cohesion of the castable and improved the resistance to failure of the lining in operation.


numerical simulation, wear lining, Drucker-Prager failure criterion, particle shape


[1] Chapra, S.C.; Canale, R.P.: Numerical Methods for Engineers, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1988 [2] Timoshenko, S.; Goodier, J.N.: Theory of elasticity, 3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 1987 [3] Brochen, E.; Dannert, Chr.; Erbar, L.; Krause, O.; Abdelouhab, S.: Tailoring the shape of coarse grains in castables – Investigation of the failure tendency of refractory castables during the frst heating, implementation of an improved failure criterion. Materiały Ceramiczne/Cerami. Mat., in press [4] Erbar, L.; Krause, O.; Brochen, E.; Dannert, Chr., Abdelouhab, S.: Impact of cubic-shaped grain fractions on the working properties and green strength of high-alumina castables. Proceedings of the 61st International Conference on Refractories, Aachen, 2018


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