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Iron and Steel

China Continues to Dominate Refractories Despite a Slowing Steel Industry

China remains the largest producer of refractories, and is expected to account for more than two thirds of a global output of 37,3 Mt in 2019.

Linking Customer Needs of Refractory Suppliers with Technological Requirements on the Refractories

Although the suppliers and developers of refractories often know what is expected of their product, in many cases the details of what requirement is how important are unknown and difficult...

Mineralogy and Thermodynamics in Refractories

This paper summarises the main content of a presentation given at the 53rd Annual Symposium on Refractories sponsored by The St. Louis Section and Refractory Ceramics Division of the American...

Physical Modeling of Slag Penetration on the Refractories in a Static Magnetic Field

Alumina based refractory is the important lining material in the process of steelmaking, and slag corrosion is one of the main forms of refractory wear.

Impact of Magnesia Grain Size on the In Situ Spinel Formation in Al2O3–MgO–C Refractories

In order to evaluate the effect of magnesia grain size on spinel formation process, four compositions with different dead burned magnesia grain sizes along with fused alumina and graphite were...

The Microstructure Design of the Bonding System and Novel Technical Routes for Si3N4-Bonded SiC-Refractories

In the present work, an overview of Si3N4-bonded SiC-refractories, including an optimised bonded system and simplified production process, is given.

Advanced Ceramic Filtering Materials: a Contribution to Clean Steel Technologies

Non-metallic inclusions in cast metal parts remarkably influence their performance during application.

Bridging the Gap between Refractory Supplier and the Refractory User in the Steel Plant → Real Value-in-Use

Tata Steel IJmuiden has developed an in-house Value-in-Use model for the steel ladle. This model very efficiently calculates and predicts all the costs and benefits of changes in refractory designs...

Comparison of Cement- and Hydratable Alumina-Bonded Alumina-Spinel Materials for Steel Ladle Purging Plugs

This paper provides a summary of extended investigations performed on cement- and hydratable alumina bonded refractory materials for steel ladle purging plugs.

Modeling of Thermomechanical Damages of Steel Ladle Shell during Operations

Iron and steel ladles are used as transport and/or treatment vessels during the metallurgical process.