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Thermomechanical Modelling of a Steel Ladle Using Periodical Homogenisation for the Refractory Masonries

In the steelmaking industry and in many others that involve the processing of molten metal, the metallurgical vessels can be lined with refractory bricks, with or without mortar. These refractory masonries can have different designs (for example parallel or radial for a bottom lining) with different joint thicknesses.