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Carbon-containing Refractories with Antioxidants in Laboratory and Practical Application

Antioxidants are common additives to carbon-containing refractories. They reinforce the carbon-bond by creation of new oxidic or non-oxidic bonds while reacting with refractory components and ambient oxygen. Strength is increased and porosity reduced, but elasticity and slag resistance as well as resistance towards thermal decomposition is lowered, particularly under vacuum conditions.