Due to their excellent thermomechanical properties and corrosion resistance against aggressive steel/slag systems, carbon-bonded magnesia (MgO–C), alumina-magnesia (AMC), and magnesia-alumina (MAC) bricks are the dominating refractories for the lining of the side walls and bottom of steel ladles, basic oxygen furnaces, and electric arc furnaces.
Carbon bonded magnesia and magnesia-alumina bricks are used in the side walls and bottom of steel ladles for more than 30 years.
Antioxidants are common additives to carbon-containing refractories. They reinforce the carbon-bond by creation of new oxidic or non-oxidic bonds while reacting with refractory components and ambient oxygen. Strength is increased and porosity reduced, but elasticity and slag resistance as well as resistance towards thermal decomposition is lowered, particularly under vacuum conditions.